What is Parliament?
Parliament is the law-making body made up of elected politicians who are responsible for making and repealing laws. It is not the same as the government, which governs the country or the province/territory or city/town. The government is usually made up of Members of Parliament from a political party which has elected the most seats in the legislature. Parliament’s responsibility is to ensure the government is accountable, to introduce and pass laws and to debate issues. It is also responsible for examining government policy and administration. In Ontario, Parliament is referred to as the Legislative Assembly of Ontario. It may also be called the Legislature or the House.
Canada’s federal and provincial governments exercise the principle of responsible government. Under this system, the Executive, also called the Cabinet, must maintain the confidence of the House - the elected representatives. A government can lose power if it loses the confidence of the House. This might occur when a vote on a major government bill, such as the budget, is lost. Although this rarely happens, it is more likely when there is a minority government – when the number of seats of the opposition totals more than the seats of the government.
The History of Parliamentary Democracy
The concept of parliamentary democracy has roots that stretch back thousands of years. The word parliament is derived from the French word parler, which means to speak. The word democracy comes from the Greek word demos, meaning people, and kratia, meaning rule. Therefore, democracy literally means "the people’s rule". This concept dates back about 2,500 years ago to ancient Greece.
Our system of parliamentary democracy developed over many centuries in England and can be traced back to the signing of the Magna Carta in 1215. This charter attacked the absolute powers of the crown and guaranteed fundamental rights and privileges for citizens. Over time, the Magna Carta was revised, requiring the Monarch to govern with Parliament to gain consent for taxes. Parliament eventually established further rights which would make it even stronger – this became known as parliamentary privilege. In the late 17th century, a Declaration of Rights was issued by Parliament, affirming the rights of British subjects and establishing Parliament’s supremacy over the Crown.