STANDING COMMITTEE ON FINANCE AND ECONOMIC AFFAIRS
FIFTH INTERIM REPORT: ECONOMIC IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON INFRASTRUCTURE
1st Session, 42nd Parliament
69 Elizabeth II
The Honourable Ted Arnott, MPP
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly
Your Standing Committee on Finance and Economic Affairs has the honour to present its Report and commends it to the House.
Amarjot Sandhu, MPP
Chair of the Committee
STANDING COMMITTEE ON FINANCE AND ECONOMIC AFFAIRS
1st Session, 42nd Parliament
STAN CHO MIKE SCHREINER
SOL MAMAKWA DAVE SMITH
*DONNA SKELLY was replaced by LOGAN KANAPATHI on September 14, 2020.
Clerk of the Committee
Clerk pro tem. of the Committee
ANDREW MCNAUGHT, DMITRY GRANOVSKY and ALEX ALTON
· culture and heritage;
· municipalities, construction and building;
· small and medium enterprises; and
· other economic sectors selected by the Committee.
· Northern Ontario — a joint federal/provincial investment of $69 million to support First Nations in the Ring of Fire.
· Southwestern Ontario — a provincial investment, together with infrastructure partners, of up to $190 million in the Southwestern Integrated Fibre Technology (SWIFT) project that will bring broadband service to 50,000 homes.
· Eastern Ontario — a provincial investment, in partnership with the Eastern Ontario Regional Network (EORN), of up to $213 million to improve internet access in eastern Ontario.
· Unspent Funds — According to the Financial Accountability Office’s report on government spending in 2019-2020 (released in July 2020), the Ministry did not spend all of the money that had been budgeted for broadband and health care infrastructure projects. Asked for an explanation, the Minister noted that actual spending depends on many factors, including partner funding from municipalities and telecommunications providers. In addition, the pandemic has added complexity to the construction process; for example, physical distancing requirements at construction sites have reduced productivity. The Minister also emphasized that these are multi-year projects, and that due to delays resulting from various factors, the money budgeted for them is being “re-profiled” into future years. The Province’s commitment to these projects, however, has not changed.
· Priorities — Infrastructure Ontario has indicated that it will be reassessing whether to proceed with projects currently underway. In light of potential delays, the Minister was asked why the Province is not investing today in what some would say are more immediate needs, such as child care, education, and long-term care staffing. The Minister responded by noting that as part of Ontario’s Accelerated Build Pilot Program, up to 640 new long-term care beds will be built in Mississauga by 2021, and that in Durham a new long-term care home will be built within months, not years.
· Closing the Digital Divide — The Committee also asked the Minister to elaborate on what she means when she says, “funding is not enough to close the digital divide.” The Minister reiterated that the federal government, and specifically the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC), sets national standards for internet and cellular services. This, she stated, “is the reason why we are calling on the federal government to do its part and properly fund broadband.”
· Municipalities — Testimony received during the Committee’s recent review of the municipal sector revealed that many municipalities are in “dire” financial straits due to the pandemic. The Committee asked the Minister whether the Province would be willing to cover the municipal share of infrastructure funding, so that local projects can move forward. In response, the Minister assured the Committee that the government is well aware of the situation, and noted that Infrastructure Ontario is working with municipalities and the federal government to ensure that projects go ahead, including those approved under the Investing in Canada Infrastructure Program. The Minister also noted that municipalities stand to receive significant funding under the federal government’s Safe Restart Program, announced at the end of July 2020.
· Indigenous Communities — According to one Committee Member, some Indigenous communities in northwestern Ontario do not have access to clean drinking water and remain under long-standing “boil-water” advisories. Asked how the government intends to address this issue, the Minister noted that a number of First Nations water improvement projects have been approved under the Green Stream component of the federal/provincial Investing in Canada Infrastructure Program.
· As a top priority, IO is looking at how to maintain and possibly accelerate critical health care projects in the agency’s “pipeline.” Several hospital projects, including new hospitals and major upgrades, are about to open or are near completion. IO is also working with the Ministry of Long-Term Care and individual hospitals on “rapid construction” of additional long-term care beds. A recent development is the use of “modular construction,” which will allow for the addition of increased capacity within months, as opposed to years.
· The second prong of IO’s plan is to “maintain the momentum” for critical transit projects. Projects in progress include procurement for the Ontario Line, requests for proposals to construct tunnels for the Eglinton Crosstown West and Scarborough subway lines, and several projects under the Metrolinx expansion program.
· IO’s third priority is to enhance the Province’s real estate portfolio. Notable projects include the ongoing renovation of the Macdonald Block and Whitney Block, two large government buildings at Queen’s Park.
Provincial Procurement Policy
Force Majeure Clauses
· Provincial pandemic-delay policy — adopt a provincial policy for treating pandemic-related delays and costs under public infrastructure contracts.
· Force majeure clauses — invoke provincial emergency management powers to retroactively insert force majeure clauses into all construction and professional services contracts.
· Insurance costs — exercise provincial regulatory power to control insurance costs in the infrastructure sector.
· Internet for all Ontarians — invest in internet infrastructure in areas lacking high-speed connectivity.
· Connecting libraries — invest in developing the digital infrastructure of libraries.
· Fast-track approvals — streamline the approvals process for developing internet infrastructure.
· Service provider access to infrastructure — provide internet service providers with better access to existing infrastructure such as utility poles.
· Essential service — declare access to the internet an essential service.
· Environmental assessments — ensure that recent reforms to streamline the environmental assessment process are not eroded over time.
· Underground infrastructure notification — ensure stricter adherence to legislated timelines for marking underground infrastructure at excavation and dig sites.
· Waste management — eliminate regulatory barriers to investing in new waste diversion, recycling, and disposal infrastructure.
· Funding distribution — distribute provincial infrastructure funding to municipalities in accordance with the “allocation-based model.”
· Rural municipalities — invest in rural municipal infrastructure projects.
· Maintenance grant program — establish a maintenance grant program for rural municipalities.
· Ring of Fire — invest in the Ring of Fire mining project.
Community Benefits Agreements
· addresses the issues relating to a specific project (as opposed to a provincial or company policy);
· sets out a process for collaboration between the project owner and the community for achieving a range of broad policy objectives, such as equity, poverty reduction, environmental protection, and local economic development;
· details the specific benefits that a community will receive from the project, such as equitable hiring practices, funding for training, neighbourhood improvements, and support for social enterprises; and
· includes monitoring and enforcement mechanisms.
The Jane-Finch Community Centre
· Community Benefits Agreements — embed Community Benefits Agreements in infrastructure projects such as public transit projects.
· Jane-Finch Community Centre — ensure that the Jane-Finch Community and Family Centre is built.
Green Infrastructure and Active Transportation
· Funding — dedicate 15% of infrastructure funding to green infrastructure.
· Active transportation network — maintain and improve existing active transportation assets; build new active transportation infrastructure in areas under provincial jurisdiction, including a provincial cycling network.
· Regulatory barriers — remove regulatory barriers to facilitate urban freight shipping by e-cargo cycles, and address age restrictions for e-cycles.
· Consultation — form a provincial advisory committee on active transportation to address emerging issues.
· Promotion – provide rebates on the purchase of bicycles and e-cycles, and vouchers for repairs and servicing.
Social Services and Affordable Housing
· Health and social services — give priority to infrastructure projects that take into account access to health and social services.
· Affordable housing — invest in affordable housing; provide government guarantees to encourage development; consider alternative sources of funding such as capitalizing land values and tax incremental financing.
· Indigenous entrepreneurship — provide reliable broadband service to Indigenous businesses and communities.
· Funding — provide funding for Indigenous-owned businesses, including Indigenous start-ups.
· Housing — support the delivery of housing infrastructure in Indigenous communities, including projects led by Indigenous developers.
· Training — support the development of professional technical capacity in Indigenous communities; assist with the construction of a new instructional building for the First Nations Technical Institute.
· Support the province’s nuclear industry — invest in provincial nuclear projects, manufacturing of specialized equipment, and new technologies such as Small Modular Reactors.
· Retooling and Economic Recovery Council — support Bruce Power’s reactor Life-Extension Program.
· Nuclear supply chains — explore collaboration between provincial and federal supply chains to support economic recovery efforts.
· Medical Isotopes — recognize the strategic importance of and invest in medical isotope production.
Canada’s largest building materials company, Lafarge, also proposed changes to the Province’s waste management system. Currently recycling over two million tons a year in Ontario, the company would like to increase that amount as part of a move to the “circular economy.” One proposal is that the government consider prescribed percentages for recycled aggregates in building materials, and carbon content requirements for building materials, similar to an Energy Star rating for consumer products.
· Producer responsibility — amend waste management regulations to place greater responsibility on producers and distributors to recover materials.
· Red tape — reduce red tape to encourage growth in the waste management industry.
· Financial assurance — lower the cost of financial assurance, so that it is more in line with the actual level of industry risk.
· Circular economy — prescribe minimum requirements for recycled content in building materials.
Skilled Trades and Accreditation
· Skilled trades — continue to invest in and promote the skilled trades, with a focus on programs that encourage women and racialized communities to participate in these professions.
· Re-purposing schools — invest in schools to provide more adult education and skills training.
· Foreign accreditation — work with the federal government to recognize more foreign-trained workers.
Recreational Trail Maintenance
· Snowmobile Trails — invest in maintaining snowmobile trails across the province.
“Changing the Way We Do Things”
· Government/Private Sector Collaboration — collaborate with the private sector to identify and address key infrastructure issues. A leading precedent is New Zealand’s Construction Sector Accord, signed in 2019 by the government and major infrastructure sector stakeholders. The accord established a forum for government and industry to address critical sector issues such as skills and labour shortages, unclear regulations, a lack of coordinated leadership, an uncertain pipeline of work, and a culture of shifting risk.
· Project Pipeline Transparency — develop a multi-year project pipeline document, based on municipal asset management plans and similar to Infrastructure Ontario’s Market Updates, which keep the public informed on the status of major public infrastructure projects. Project pipeline documents allow the private sector to plan and allocate resources to meet the province’s future infrastructure needs. International precedents for pipeline documents exist in the United Kingdom and Australia.
· Performance Standards and the Circular Economy — adopt “performance standards” for the construction industry. In contrast to the current “ingredients-based” system, which regulates what must go into a product, “performance standards” regulation focuses on the desired final result of a product, such as safety, longevity, and chemical resistance. In other words, “don’t tell us how to make the chocolate cake, tell us what you want it to look and taste like, and we’ll take it from there.” A move to performance standards would foster the “circular economy”—an economy in which resources are kept in use as long as possible—by encouraging the private sector to use more recycled and low-carbon materials. Possible regulatory incentives include a recycled aggregate requirement of 10% and/or a limit on carbon content for sidewalks and roads. European jurisdictions have adopted performance standards regulation.
· Streamlined Approvals — adopt measures to streamline the project approvals process. Possible reforms include “strategic development zones,” which streamline approvals for development on lands surrounding mega-projects that have been designated as areas of economic/social importance. Ireland’s Strategic Development Zones program was described as a useful precedent. New Zealand recently passed legislation establishing a temporary two-year fast-tracking program for “shovel-ready” walking and cycling, transit, road, housing, and environmental infrastructure projects; approvals are issued in 25 days; 50 days for large-scale projects.
· New sources of funding — find new ways to fund infrastructure, such as tolling and other user-pay arrangements.
· Priorities — invest in infrastructure projects according to clearly defined priorities; for example:
· select projects that will create jobs immediately, and build more resilient infrastructure that has clear long-term benefits such as savings and efficiency;
· allocate infrastructure stimulus funding to projects on an evidence-based, business-case approach, using the municipal asset management plan system as a model;
· give priority to “core” infrastructure (roads, transit, water, wastewater) that will support the province’s growing need for housing;
· continue to invest in rural municipal infrastructure, including development of the Ring of Fire;
· invest in public transportation systems to keep them in a state of good repair; and
· accelerate electrification of the transportation system, including electric vehicles.
Terms of Reference*
Appendix B: Dissenting Opinion of the New Democratic Party Members of the Committee
A second missed opportunity is the government’s unwillingness to appropriately leverage the limited public investment dollars already committed for projects in ways that not only accomplish the primary project goal, but also help build capacity and better distribute opportunity in communities across Ontario. Absent are recommendations such as broader use of community benefit agreements or a government commitment to address woefully underfunded social infrastructure. Here again, emphasis is disproportionately placed on simply reducing regulation and “encouraging” private sector participation as the only effective use of public dollars, instead of developing the policies and approaches necessary to create the conditions of investment – and actually make the required investments – that foster both the economic and social stimulus necessary in post-COVID Ontario.
If our goal is to foster the conditions that are necessary to build stronger and more resilient communities, then we cannot simply repackage previous measures or double down on ineffective existing policies to address the current challenge before us. The Ford Government needs to heed the evidence and the advice of stakeholders and the Official Opposition and immediately:
1. Make necessary and appropriate investments in municipal infrastructure, reducing the overreliance on property taxes and user fees for these items.
2. Develop a social infrastructure investment strategy that includes adequate stimulus provided for the development of affordable housing, community amenities and incorporates tools like inclusionary zoning.
3. Ensure that recovery strategies and plans emphasize a just recovery and address the challenges faced by marginalized groups, women and racialized communities, placing an emphasis on equity for all proposed solutions, such as community benefit agreements
4. Invest adequate provincial dollars to build broadband capacity in remote rural and northern communities
5. Accelerate funding for Indigenous and on-reserve water and wastewater projects
6. Leverage provincial investment to encourage the use of local labour and local supply chains for procurement and local infrastructure projects through the RFP process.
7. Discontinue the use of the P3 project model, freeing up more public dollars for investment in infrastructure.
Appendix C: Dissenting Opinion of the Liberal Party Members of the Committee
We heard from several presenters who outlined the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the infrastructure sector, all of whom are calling for increased funding and support.
We understand and acknowledge the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the infrastructure sector, and that immediate support and investment is required to ensure the overall economic recovery of our Province.
Our recommendations represent what the Committee members heard and reflect what the infrastructure sector will require in the form of financial support, red tape reduction and regulatory change, in order to recover from the COVID-19 pandemic.
1. Expediting provincial infrastructure funding to already approved and viable projects as a form of important local and regional economic stimulus.
a. Simplify procurement and tendering procedures; and
b. Increase project eligibility and reduce the limitations on eligible costs that add layers of administration to complicated infrastructure projects.
- The Government should make temporary spending increases to infrastructure related to education infrastructure by:
- Building 14,000 new classroom locations with consideration to the use of community centres, college and university campuses, arenas, etc.
- Invest in re-developing and retrofitting school transportation networks so that they are safe and clean for our children.
3. The Government increases funding for the Ontario Broadband and Cellular Action Plan and redevelops it to ensure that every Ontarian has access to affordable and reliable high-speed internet by 2025.
- The Government increases on-reserve infrastructure spending to ensure every Ontarian has access to clean, running water.
5. Support the delivery of housing infrastructure in Indigenous communities, including projects led by Indigenous developers.
6. Provide reliable broadband service to Indigenous businesses and communities to promote Indigenous entrepreneurship.
- The Province develops a digital infrastructure strategy with rural and agricultural stakeholders with a focus on reduction of input costs.
- Ontario adopts construction performance standards that drive innovation by focusing on decarbonization and end result performance.
- Ontario creates new recycling regulations that expand producer responsibility to increase collection and diversion targets, and puts stricter obligations on producers, retailers and brand owners to recover materials.
- The Government promotes the development of Ontario’s Green Auto Industry by
- Restoring Ontario’s electric vehicle purchase incentive program; and
- Creating a partnership program to expand the availability and affordability of both private and public electric vehicle charging stations.
11. Form a provincial advisory committee on active transportation and micro-mobility with the goal of creating a provincial active transportation strategy.
a. Build new active transportation infrastructure in areas under provincial jurisdiction; and
b. Provide support and funding to municipalities for their pandemic mobility planning.
12. Allocate infrastructure stimulus funding to priority projects using evidence-based business-case approaches, supported by asset-management plans for municipal projects.
13. Establish a maintenance grant program for rural municipalities.
14. Integrate community benefits agreements into infrastructure projects.
15. Address the skilled trades shortage by:
a. Increasing investment in training and education programs for women in the construction industry; and
b. Permitting apprentices in the skilled trades to work for more than one organization and providing incentives to hire and train new workers from the local area.
16. Invest in Ontario’s mining industry including the development of the Ring of Fire.
Concrete Investments in Education Infrastructure are Critical
Concrete investment in education infrastructure is needed to ensure a safe return to school. We would have liked to see this reflected in the report and recommendations.
Our Leader, Steven Del Duca, has called for 14,000 new classroom locations and investments in re-developing school transportation networks. These steps of action are vital to ensure safe, physically distant learning. While our children's safety is our number one priority, investing in re-developing educational infrastructure is also the first step in getting parents back to work and reopening the economy.
A safe return to the classroom is especially necessary for rural communities, as they lack adequate and affordable high-speed internet to learn from home safely. Parents should not have to choose between risking their children's exposure to the virus and returning to work or their children's education.
Schools need to be just as safe as grocery stores, and this requires investments in classroom and school transportation infrastructure.
Ontario’s infrastructure needs are not limited to roads and transit. The lack of access to reliable internet connectivity hinders the ability of Ontarians to work and learn from home, as well as to undertake commercial activities, on a daily basis.
As Ontario moves through the COVID-19 pandemic and into the stages of recovery, one thing has become clear: any question about the necessity and importance of broadband internet access must finally be put to bed.
The committee heard repeatedly about the need to address the ongoing gap in equitable broadband access across Ontario, which is affecting primarily the residents and businesses located in rural, northern, and Indigenous communities.
Debbie Robinson, Warden of the County of Renfrew, articulated the importance of ensuring broadband access is available to everyone. The lack of access for rural Ontarians cannot be ignored and COVID-19 has demonstrated that Ontarians in all communities rely on digital access. Much like roads and bridges have long been considered critical forms of infrastructure, broadband has now become just as important.
Access to broadband is also of particular importance to Indigenous communities, who have long been disadvantaged by this gap in digital access. Lori Campbell echoed these concerns, claiming that Indigenous people and businesses miss out on opportunities to access education, jobs, grants, and health care as a result of not having internet access.
Ontario must treat broadband as an essential service. The government should take a leadership role and ensure that all residents have access to fast, reliable and affordable broadband within the next five years. Moreover, the government should report on its progress in meeting this target every six months.
Green & Active Transportation
The committee heard from several presenters calling on Ontario to prioritize active transportation with the ultimate goal of establishing a province-wide strategy that supports active and green infrastructure projects.
Jamie Stuckless, from Share the Road Cycling Coalition, articulated the changing mobility needs of Ontarians and the importance of including plans for cycling and active transportation in any recovery effort to ensure these needs are met. While cars and public transit have always been the traditional methods of transportation, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for developing infrastructure that meets the increased demand for walking, cycling and other means of moving about.
Equally important to the promotion of active transportation are regulatory changes the Government can make active transportation a more attractive and safer option.
Additional funding and support for green infrastructure projects will help promote healthy and active forms of transportation and tourism and will be key to the province’s overall economic recovery.
An essential element of moving Ontario into economic recovery is to ensure that rural communities receive the funding they need to address the unique challenges that have been amplified by the pandemic.
The committee heard from several presenters who outlined the unique needs of rural communities that range from access to reliable broadband services to funding ongoing infrastructure renewals.
Communities require new jobs and investment if they expect to survive this pandemic's economic impacts. Rural communities already experience broadband barriers as we adjust to a virtual world, so physical connectivity to neighbouring towns is essential for survival.
The Tories stalled two community transport pilot projects that were to launch later this year, and we highly encourage that they immediately continue the flow of funds for these projects. One connected people within Perth County while the other connected Stratford, St. Marys and Listowel with larger regions such as London and Kitchener-Waterloo.
These transportation networks are vital for rural Ontarians to obtain employment, access medical appointments and other services. Businesses in their communities have shut down throughout the pandemic and need increased connectivity if we expect an economic restart anytime soon.
Rural municipalities are in a unique position because they require key infrastructure, like roads and bridges to accommodate the large groups of tourists that they attract, but these tourists do not play a direct role in funding these key infrastructure projects
For example, in West Grey, the taxpayers alone cannot fund the bridge and road program, but due to the pandemic, they will see an increased volume in vacationers this summer. A maintenance grant program would go a long way to helping smaller municipalities extend the lifespan of key infrastructure, without needing to fully fund their replacements.
Skilled Trades & Accreditation
Equally important to the economic recovery of the infrastructure sector, is to ensure that the skilled labour shortage is addressed. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted how essential skilled trades and technology jobs are, and the critical role they play in creating and renewing infrastructure including generating economic activity.
As part of Ontario’s economic recovery, more programs are required to move people into apprenticeship or skilled trades work. The OHBA recommends that government focus on attracting and retaining the next generation of skilled workers by incentivizing companies that train new construction workers from a project’s local community.
A special lens should be applied to study any gender inequities that exist, so that the government can focus specifically on attracting and retaining women in the construction and skilled trade industry. Time and time again, we have heard that COVID-19 has impacted women more greatly than men. Now more than ever these opportunities for skilled jobs should be promoted to women. The Province should establish a task force of stakeholders to recommend how women can participate more in the construction industry and ensure they have fair and equal access to job opportunities.
Indigenous communities throughout the province have long been marginalized and have continuously faced the consequences of severe infrastructure gaps. While the COVID-19 pandemic has certainly identified many of these infrastructure gaps, it has also presented an opportunity to rethink our systems and make them more resilient. The government should prioritize investments that will bring Indigenous infrastructure up to par and ensure that indigenous people and businesses are given the opportunities necessary to be successful.
“The provincial government must continue and even increase funding to Indigenous specific skills and training supports. This needs to be available for various levels, such as development of business plans, how to access financing, and develop leadership skills, but there is also a substantial need for investment in skills training for Indigenous peoples more broadly, to expand the pool of skilled labour that Indigenous businesses need to grow and succeed.”
Committee members also heard from presenters who detailed Ontario’s Indigenous water crisis. Canada and Ontario are among the world’s leaders, yet many Indigenous populations can’t access the most basic services. The water on many Indigenous reserves is contaminated, hard to access, or toxic due to faulty treatment systems. The Province needs to take urgent steps to address their role in this crisis by increasing infrastructure spending on reserves to ensure that every Ontarian has access to clean, running water. Moreover, the government should report on its progress in meeting this target every six months.
Ensuring an adequate supply of affordable housing for indigenous communities was also an important topic discussed at committee by stakeholders. In their testimony, the Kenora District School Board argued that the province should support the delivery of this additional housing by pushing for projects that are led by Indigenous developers.
Appendix D: Dissenting Opinion of the Green Party Member of the Committee
Many presenters at Committee discussed the vital role infrastructure investment will play in the economic recovery from COVID-19. The Green Party of Ontario agrees that infrastructure investments are essential to economic recovery and job creation. The infrastructure investments we make today provide an opportunity to build back a better Ontario for tomorrow.
It is the Green Party’s position that the path the province was on prior to the pandemic was not sustainable or just. The old path did not adequately care for the people and places we love. As we invest in infrastructure development, we need to embark on a greener and more caring recovery.
The Green Party of Ontario puts forward the following recommendations to the Provincial Government to provide additional support to the infrastructure sector:
 For the purposes of this report, the Committee had access to Draft Hansard; accordingly, some quotations of witness statements may not be exact.
 As proposed by the Alliance, a legislated force majeure clause would be inserted into contracts entered into prior to April 30, 2020, “before the full nature and extent of the COVID-19 emergency . . . became apparent.”
 Canadian Internet Research Authority, "COVID-19 has changed everything," April 14, 2020.
 See the submissions from the County of Renfrew (Pembroke), Kenora District Services Board, Municipality of Chatham-Kent, Municipality of West Grey, Muskoka Lakes Chamber of Commerce, and Rural Ontario Municipal Association.
 Witnesses cited in particular Bill 197, the COVID-19 Economic Recovery Act, 2020 and Bill 108, the More Homes, More Choice Act, 2019).
 Ontario’s one-call legislation is the Ontario Underground Infrastructure Notification System Act, 2012.
 Toronto Community Benefits Network webpage, “What Is [a] Community Benefits Agreement, Or CBA?”
 V. Gill and J. Knowles, Opportunities for Ontario’s Waste: Economic Impacts of Waste Diversion in North America, The Conference Board of Canada, May 28, 2014.
 See the submissions of the Residential and Civil Construction Alliance; the Future of Infrastructure Group; the Ontario Society of Professional Engineers; the Construction and Design Alliance of Ontario; the Ontario General Contractors Association; Associated Equipment Distributors; the Ontario Home Builders’ Association; Asset Management Ontario; and Lafarge Eastern Canada.
 For example, The City Resilience Framework, developed by Arup International Development in 2014, helps cities “to assess the extent of their [infrastructure] resilience, to identify critical areas of weakness, and to identify actions and programs to improve the city’s resilience;” the report is posted on the Rockefeller Foundation’s website.
 Ontario Regulation 588/17 (Asset Management Planning for Municipal Infrastructure Regulation), under the Infrastructure for Jobs and Prosperity Act, 2015, requires every municipality to prepare an asset management plan in respect of its municipal infrastructure assets.
 County of Renfrew testimony
 Lori Campbell testimony
 Share the Road Cycling Coalition testimony
 Municipality of West Grey testimony
 Ontario Home Builders’ Association written submission
 Lori Campbell testimony
 Kenora District School Board testimony